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1603: Elizabeth I, Queen of England, dies. James I becomes King.

1605: Guy Fawkes attempts to blow up Parliament in the Gunpowder Plot.

1606: Union Jack adopted.

1607: Founding of the Jamestown Colony in Virginia.

1608: Galileo invents the telescope.

1608: Captain John Smith discovers Chesapeake Bay.

1610: France founds Quebec as a colony.

1611: The King James Bible is published.

1611: Gustavus II Adolphus Wasa crowned King of Sweden.

1612: Tobacco becomes a cash crop when it is raised in Virginia by John Rolfe.

1612: Tea arrives in Europe.

1615: Galileo writes a letter to the Grand Duchess of Tuscany in which he expresses his Copernican views. He is brought to trial by the Inquisition.

1616: Pocahontas arrives in London with John Smith.

1616: Richelieu appointed minister of France.

1618: Sir Walter Raleigh executed.

1618-1648: Conflict between Protestants and Catholics results in the bloody Thirty Years' War on the Continent.

1619: The Dutch colonize Batavia (Jakarta) in Java.

1620: Pilgrims land at Plymouth Rock, Massachusetts.

1622: The Spanish Treasure fleet is sunk by a hurricane in the Florida Straits.

1625: Death of James I, King of England.

1625: The French colonize Tortuga.

1626: Charles I, assumes the throne of England.

1629: Charles I dissolves Parliament.

1630: Founding of Boston.

1630: English-Spanish war ends with Treaty of Madrid.

1632: Gustavas Adolphus killed at Battle of Luetzen.

1633: The Inquisition forces Galileo to recant Copernicanism and places him under house arrest for life.

1634: English settlers sent by the second Lord Baltimore found the Catholic Colony of Maryland.

1634: In an bid to raise money for the navy, Charles I attempts to levy the “ship money” tax, creating widespread animosity.

1635: Connecticut settled.

1636: Harvard College is founded.

1637: “Tulipmania” seizes Holland and parts of the Continent, causing wild stock market fluctuations before the tulip trade finally collapsed.

1640: Charles I recalls Parliament, but dismisses it again after a few months (the “the Short Parliament”). Later that year, he calls Parliament back again to approve funds for his war in Scotland, but the legislative body uses the opportunity to instate laws checking a British monarch’s power.

1641: Catholics in Ireland revolt against English rule.

1642: Galileo dies while under house arrest.

1642: Charles I attempts to arrest five members of Parliament, but they escape.

1642: Charles I raises his standard at Nottingham, officially beginning the English Civil War, which pitted the Royal Army against the Parliamentarian Army.

1642: Death of Cardinal Richelieu; Cardinal Mazarin succeeds him.

1643: The new King of France is Louis XIV.

1646: Charles flees to Scotland.

1647: Scottish Calvinists turn Charles over to the Parliamentary army, but he is rescued by his own, which had refused to disband. Charles flees to the Isle of Wight. He negotiates a new treaty with the Scots and persuades them to his side.

1648: The Second English Civil War begins when Charles’ Scottish army invades England.

1648: Charles is seized by Parliament following the Battle of Colchester.

1648: Treaty of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War.

1649: King Charles stands trial, is convicted of treason, and is beheaded.

1649: The House of Lords is abolished and England is declared a republic. In Scotland, Charles II is proclaimed King of England.

1649: Cromwell invades Ireland.

1650: The army of Charles II marches into Scotland.

1651: Cromwell defeats Charles II at Worchester, ending the English Civil war. Charles II flees to France.

1652: South Africa colonized by the Dutch.

1653: Oliver Cromwell takes title of Lord Protector.

1658: Oliver Cromwell dies; his son Robert succeeds him but it quickly deposed in a coup.

1659: Spanish-French War begins.

1660: Charles II returns to England and the Restoration begins.

1660: Settling of North Carolina.

1661: Louis XIV begins his personal rule at fourteen years of age.

1664: The English take New York away from the Dutch.

1665: More than 75,000 die when plague strikes London.

1665: Philip IV, King of Spain, Naples, and Sicily, dies; his mentally deficient son, Charles II, assumes the throne with his mother acting as regent.

1666: The Great Fire of London destroys thousands of homes, but rids the city of plague.

1671: Panama is sacked by Henry Morgan.

1672: English and French ally in war against the Dutch.

1678: France ends war with Spain and Holland with the Peace of Nijmegen.

1679: England institutes the Writ of Habeas Corpus, guaranteeing its citizens protection from arbitrary arrest.

1682: The Great Comet is sighted by Edmund Halley. He plots its orbit and predicts its return in 1705.

1685: Charles II of England dies. His brother, James II, assumes the throne and enacts sweeping pro-Catholic reforms.

1685: James Scott, Duke of Monmouth and James II’s illegitimate brother, mounts a rebellion but is defeated, captured, and executed.

1685: By renouncing the Edict of Nantes, French Protestants lose their religious civil rights.

1688: England's Glorious Revolution deposes the Catholic King James II; Holland's William and Mary are invited to be the new King and Queen.

1689: The new Czar of Russia is Peter the Great.

1690: King William III defeats the army of former King James II in Ireland at the Battle of Boyne, thus assuring England's Protestantism.

1692: Salem witch trials.

1692: Founding of College of William and Mary in the Virginia Colony.

1697:William Dampier, a British buccaneer, navigator, and scientist, publishes his landmark book, A New Voyage Around the World.

1698: Parliament opens the slave trade to English merchants.

1699: Settling of Louisiana.

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